Plant oil base catalytic hydrolysis device
The saponification reaction is an ester hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by a base, especially the hydrolysis of oils.
In addition to the common grease and sodium hydroxide reaction, the saponification reaction also involves the reaction of grease and concentrated ammonia.
The main components of fats and vegetable oils are triglycerides. The equation for their hydrolysis under alkaline conditions is:
CHOCOR + 3NaOH --------> 3R-COONa + CH2OH-CHOH-CH2OH
R base may be different, but the generated R-COONa can be used as soap. Common R-are:
CH-: 8-heptadecenyl. R-COOH is oleic acid.
CH-: n-pentadecyl. R-COOH is palmitic acid.
CH-: n-heptadecyl group. R-COOH is stearic acid.
Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid, obtained by hydrolysis of oil; soft and stearic acid are saturated fatty acids, obtained by hydrolysis of fat.
If KOH is used for hydrolysis, the soap obtained is soft.
Adding sodium chloride to the solution can separate fatty acid sodium. This process is called salting out. Higher fatty acid sodium is the main component of soap, and bar soap can be obtained by treating with filler
Representative equipment, castor oil hydrolysis
Alkali-catalyzed hydrolysis of castor oil. The product sodium ricinoleate,
The first step in the production of sebacic acid